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sainte-chapelle

Date: 1241-1248
Location: Paris
Style: Gothic, Rayonnnant
Materials: Stone, wood, stained-glass, metal
Religion: Catholic
Architect: Unknown

brief summary

Sainte-Chapelle is an explendid testimony of the Rayonnant Gothic style, best known for its mesmerizing stained-glass windows that cover almost the entirety of the wall’s height. The royal chapel constructed within the Palai de la Cité, in Paris, is one of the most important examples of the French Gothic style, alongside the Notre-Dame Cathedral and the Chartres Cathedral.

general description

It houses the most exquisite example of 13th century stained-glass windows, one of the most popular forms of pictorial art until the 16th century. It was built in the heart of King Louis IX’s royal palace on the Île de la Cité, in its main courtyard. With a simple and sober exterior, Sainte-Chapelle remains, however, one of the most iconic examples of the Rayonnant style (a specific architectural Gothic style). It shows a paramount exploration of light, through its mesmerizing stained-glass work, which covers the majority of the walls height, filling the chapel with purple hues of light rays and creating the most atmospheric ambience, which involves every visitor of the chapel.

Interior of the Upper Chapel

The Sainte-Chapelle is widely considered one the most significant examples of Rayonnant Gothic architecture. Along with the Conciergerie, it is also the only surviving architectural example of the Capetian royal palace, on the Île de la Cité. Its notorious stained-glass windows (a masterpiece of this artform) are generally considered the most exquisite collection of 13th century stained-glass to have survived to this day, and one of the most admired stained-glass treasures in Europe. Although the remaining relics are today housed in Notre-Dame, (the fragment of the cross, a nail, and the crown of thorns), the chapel is still a fundamental architectural example of its time, marking a great innovation and a unique combination of inspirations. The Sainte-Chapelle is now considered to be a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

Drawing of the Palace after the construction of Sainte-Chapelle, from Dictionary of French Architecture from 11th to 16th Century (1856) by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc

Floor Plan of the Palace, from Dictionary of French Architecture from 11th to 16th Century (1856) by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc

The Conciergerie (on the west of the Île de la Cité) (CC BY-SA 2.0, by Jorge Láscar)

Commissioned by King Louis IX (1214-1270), a king known for his extremely devoid religious nature, who was later canonized as a saint after his death (the only French king to have ever been canonized). Known as the “monk King” by his admirers from the following centuries, he is seen as a just Christian ruler. A believer in justice for all he conducted the reform in France, creating the French royal justice, which meant that anyone could appeal for an amendment of a trial, and also introduced the presumption of innocence in criminal procedures. King Louis was a devout Christian and a very reasonable and moderate man, known for his bravery, chivalry and kindness, and thus a king loved by all of his people. The purpose of the chapel was to house the precious Christian relics the King had purchased, relics of the passion of Christ, including the remains of the crown of thorns which he had purchased from the emperor of Constantinople, Baldwin II (1217-1273) and was widely considered one of the most important relics in medieval Christendom. Apart from this main relic, the king had a large collection of various other religious relics acquired during his two crusades (including a piece of the true cross and the nails used for the crucifixion, and even milk from the Virgin Mary and a tear shed by Christ). The ownership of these precious and unique items established Paris and the kingdom as an important Christian monarchy, and therefore, attributing a profound religious and political importance to both the relics and the chapel. The Chapel was designed to be as magnificent as the relics it housed, making it a place of awe, worship and wonder, for all those that would contemplate it. It’s striking architecture aimed to equal its importance. As was custom at the time, the biblical illustrations aimed to address the illiterate population, who could visualize the story.

Portrait of Louis IX, King of France (1837) by Auguste de Creuse

Reliquary of the Holy Crown, now in Notre-Dame Cathedral, Paris

Sliding cover from a coffer that contained a “Sepulchre Stone”

The Sainte-Chapelle emerged in a very specific and unique context, resulting from the beginnings of the new Rayonnant style – a form of Gothic style (that literally had higher aspirations for space), which emerged during the reign of Louis IX of France (1214-1270). The reign of King Louis, from 1226 to 1270, was marked by a profound wealth and power of the nation, a reign that is thought to have truly unified the kingdom of France. King Louis is also known to have been extremely religious (later canonized as a Saint), and was a firm believer in theology and the arts (having founded the Sorbonne, at the time, now the University of Paris, a school of theology). A firm believer in the power of architecture and the use of sacred space, he commanded various notorious cathedrals and chapels in the Rayonnant style. The first of which, the Amiens Cathedral (1220–1270), had the aim of becoming Frances’ largest and most notorious cathedrals, under the supervision of the builder Bishop Evrard de Fouilloy. Succeeding in creating unique unprecedented features, such as a surface area of 7,700 square meters or the vaults which are 42.5 meters high, the Amiens Cathedral set the tone for new aspirations and groundbreaking features, which greatly inspired the designs and ambitions that would define the Sainte-Chapelle. After this, both the Basilica of Saint-Denis and the Cathedral of Notre-Dame received transformations in the Rayonnant style.

Amiens Cathedral (1220–1270) (CC BY-SA 3.0, by Benh LIEU SONG)

  • High Middle Ages: Lasting between the 12th and the 13th centuries, this was a period in history defined by a spirited and abundant creative production. France was the cultural center of Western Europe during this period, considered by some as the originator of the new artistic trends, leading the transition from the Romanesque to the Gothic styles. This was also a time of political, social, economical and intellectual renewal, a period known as the “Renaissance of the 12th century”. A time when medieval music thrived in the Notre-Dame School of Polyphony, and vernacular literature grew popular through the many chivalric romances and trouvère poetry. In addition, the first universities were founded all across Europe during this period, such as the University of Paris (1150) in France, Cambridge University (1209) in Britain, Salamanca University (1218) in Spain, Padua University (1222) in Italy and Coimbra University (1290) in Portugal. 

A Meeting of Doctors at the University of Paris (16th century) by Étienne Colaud, from the “Chants royaux” manuscript

  • Architecture in the High Middle Ages: Religion has an intrinsic part of the greatest architecture masterpieces since the earliest civilizations. Particularly during the Middle ages, most of architecture was of Christian nature, especially the one of Gothic style – churches and cathedrals featuring a Latin Cross floor plan. The Gothic style, originating in France during the 12th century (High Middle Ages), with the construction of the Saint-Denis Cathedral, this specific style was known as “Opus Francigenum”, translating to “French Work”. Other exemplary works from this period are the Notre-Dame Cathedral (1163-1345), the Chartres Cathedral (c. 1194-1250) and the Cathedral of Our Lady of Amiens (1220-1270). This style, which exalted verticality and light, transformed architecture through the groundbreaking use of flying buttresses and the rib vault, in order to distribute and support the massive weight of the stone, to introduce bigger windows, allowing such incredible heights and light. The Gothic style developed into many variants, including the Rayonnant style, which emerged in the mid-13th century, lasting until mids of the 14th century, when it started to be replaced by the Flamboyant trend. Rayonnant architecture sought after bigger heights and luminosity, culminating in the dazzling stained-glass windows of the Sainte-Chapelle of Paris. This style is characterised by larger openings on the base floor, more windows, larger rose windows, more intricate decorative motifs (either inside or outside). The French style became very popular throughout the Middle Ages, and was extensively copied by Northern Europe, especially by England and Germany (Cologne Cathedral for example). The Gothic style was gradually surpassed by French Renaissance architecture in late medieval times, and it had fallen into the background by the 16th century. However, many of these are now considered to be the finest examples of medieval architecture, resulting in most of them to be included on UNESCO’s list of World Heritage Sites.

 

 

 

 

Construction is believed to have begun after 1238, at around 1240, however these dates are speculative. The chapel was consecrated on 26 April 1248 which means the construction had concluded and the chapel was complete. This makes the construction have spanned a total of seven years to a decade, an incredibly short time for the time. And so Sainte-Chapelle is very likely to have been a priority for the King. There are no official documents that identify the architect of the Chapelle. However, it is estimated that Pierre de Montreuil, a renown architect of the time, was the one to have led the project – also responsible for the Basilica of Saint-Denis and of the transept of Notre-Dame Cathedral. The Chapelle suffered from many fires and one flooding – the Seine Flooding which took place in the winter of 1689-1690. In the 19th century, the stained-glass windows of the chapel underwent a major restoration, in order to recover from the impacts of the French Revolution and from those multiple recurrent fires. Restorations began in 1836, under the direction of Architect Félix Duban, who is believed to have been guided by the notorious restoration expert of the time, Viollet-le-Duc – these aimed to restore the chapel to its original condition.

The Sainte-Chapelle rises above the rooflines of the Louvre Castle on the Île de la Cité in Paris. Illustration of the month of June from the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (c. 1400) by the Limbourg Brothers

Louis XIV arrives at the Palais de la Cité to preside over a session of the Parlement de Paris (1715) by Pierre-Denis Martin

The Palais (1857) by Adrien Dauzats

aesthetic/architectural analysis

The architectural style of the Sainte-Chapelle is a form of Gothic architecture entitled Rayonnant. It is a prime example of the Rayonnant design, and a pivotal archetype of its genre, which greatly allowed for the definition of this style. The style aimed to allow a maximum amount of light into the main uninterrupted space ( either in churches, chapels or cathedrals), striving for a greater height for the vaulted ceilings and larger windows; it also strove for more refined decoration, and a greater spatial unity. All these ideas are exquisitely achieved in the Sainte-Chapelle whose windows cover almost the entirety of the walls, and its spatial unity is given by its colourful rich decoration (also a great characteristic of this style). Aiming to create a sensation of weightlessness, the whole structure achieves a unique light atmosphere. Unlike other Gothic structures, the chapel has a rather sober and simple exterior, completely devoid of the usual flying buttresses. Other notorious features of the Rayonnant style include the reduction of the importance of the transept, decorative motifs spreading to the outside facade and repetition of decorative motifs at different scales.

Strasbourg Cathedral (CC BY-SA 2.0, by Tauralbus)

Bristol Cathedral

East view of Sainte-Chapelle in Paris (CC BY-SA 4.0, by Uoaei)

The exterior of the chapel is simple and austere, devoid of flying buttresses and other recurrent Gothic features such as imposing sculptures. However, it is exemplary of the Rayonnant style, possessing buttresses topped with pinnacles, massive windows separated by bar traceries and crocketed gables. The western facade, the most spectacular of the facades, can be seen from the courtyard of the Palace of Justice. The Sainte-Chapelle is organized in various distinct floors. The lower chapel, in the first floor, was used by all the inhabitants of the parish (initially meant for it to be used by officers), whereas the second floor was reserved for the royal family. Besides the general and abundant use of stone and glass, it is suggested that metal was utilized in its structure. It is believed metal in the form of iron rods or chains was used in order to support the buttresses, which seem too heavy to be supported by standard construction methods and materials.

Floor Plan of Sainte-Chapelle, from Dictionary of French Architecture from 11th to 16th Century (1856) by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc

North facade of Sainte-Chapelle (1858), photo by Édouard Baldus

Spire of Sainte-Chapelle (CC BY 2.0, by xiquinhosilva)

  • Western Facade: The facade, enclosed by the staircase turrets, is mainly constituted by a very pronounced porch, the large rose window of the upper chapel and a gable. The porch encompasses a vast bay at the center, enclosed by other two smaller ones at each side. At the gable’s base, rises a balustrade with the monogram of King Charles VIII within fleur-des-lis, held by two carved kneeling angles. At the top, the pyramidal portion carries intricate ornamental elements, including the Crown of Thorns and the crown of France, executed in the 15th century, and later restored in 1845 by the workshop of Geoffroy-Dechaume (1816-1892), upon the last reconstruction, as most of the present-day sculptures which adorn the Chapelle. At the time, common people entered from outside, through the lower chapel, and the King and the noble guests entered the upper chapel from within, through the palace arcades which connected to the royal apartments.

West facade of Sainte-Chapelle in Paris (CC BY 2.5, by Didier B (Sam67fr))

Detail of a Sculpture in the West Facade (CC BY-SA 2.0, by Guillaume Speurt)

Door Hinge Ornament from the West Facade (CC BY 2.0, by gadgetdude)

  • Steeple/Spire: The current spire measures around 33 meters, and it’s the fifth one to have risen since its original construction. Although the initial design remains unknown, the second spire, reconstructed during the reign (1364-1380) of King Charles V (1338-1380), stars in a miniature painting from the Limbourg Brothers’ Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (1413). The steeple was once again rebuilt around 1460, as it is documented in many etchings and drawings, a spire that was later destroyed during a fire in 1630, and so did the fourth version, in 1793. It is known that the spire once possessed ornamental fleur-de-lis, highly symbolic of the French monarchy. The present steeple underwent its construction between 1853 and 1855. Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Lassus (1807-1857), the leading architect of the steeple project, based his designs on the earliest documentations of the spire, resulting in a steeple which resembles the one from the 15th century. It was constructed in cedar wood and decorated with carvings and finished with an apse with an angel, the latter executed by the workshop of Adolphe Geoffroy-Dechaume (1816-1892).

Rigorous Study of the Spire of Sainte-Chapelle, from Dictionary of French Architecture from 11th to 16th Century (1856) by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc

  • Interior: Highly decorated on the inside, which greatly balances and counterposes the simple and austere outside, the interior of the chapel aimed to be a magnificent precious place. The main interior space is dominated by the colour and scale of the 15 stained-glass windows, which flood this internal large space with blue and violet light. Every fragment of the internal space is highly decorated with rich vibrant colours and stylized iconography. Current analysis of the paint reveals that the original paints were brighter than their actual conditions today, making this internal experience highly exquisite and unique. The arcade was painted with scenes of saints and martyrs, and rich textiles were hung from various parts within the interior spaces. In addition, there are twelve sculptures of the twelve Apostles, beneath and in between the stained-glass windows, each with a disk with the consecration crosses used during the consecration. Among the figures, Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Lassus (1807-1857), the leading architect of the last steeple restoration, is depicted as Saint Thomas (as he is holding a square which bears his name), and so is the master glass painter, Louis Steinheil (1814-1885) as well, depicted as Saint Philip. These sculptures are then below many decorative gables, which encompass angels sounding their trumpets while holding Arma Christi (instruments of the Passion, associated with the Passion of Christ). In total, its sculptures, windows and intricate interior decorations are profoundly impressive, creating an immersive experience through the use of harmonious tones of blue, azure, and golden highlights.

Interior of the Upper Chapel

Decorative Detail of the walls (CC BY-SA 2.0, by Guillaume Speurt)

Sculpture of an Apostle (CC BY 2.5, by Didier B (Sam67fr))

The Lower Chapel: The lower floor plan and structure resonates very much to a crypt. Measuring around 7 meters in height (excluding the vaults), the lower chapel encompasses a nave at the center, measuring 6 meters in width, enclosing side aisles which are only 2 meters wide, all constituting the apse ambulatory. The vault at the center presents a line of thrusts buttressed by interior small flying buttresses, called the braces (a unique feature of the Chapelle’s design). The apse’s vaults are supported by a metal underlying structure, and the way the nave was designed resembles the western bays of the side isles present in Amiens’ Cathedral, according to art historian Robert Branner (1927-1973) – showing large openings, trefoils and multiple rose windows, something that is also very uncommon. This chapel suffered immensely with the flood of Seine, in the winter of 1689-1690, damaging the initial paint job, requiring the removal of the funerary slabs, the altars, the entire floor and the stained-glass windows. Regarding these windows, not much is known about its history, only that some of them were replaced at this time by grisaille designs (grey in tonality), while the ones in the apse remained in colour. The windows we see today present narratives connect to the life of Virgin Mary, designed by Louis Charles Auguste Steinheil (1914-1985). These narratives include: The Adoration of the Magi, The Coronation of the Virgin, The Presentation of Jesus in the Temple, Joseph and the Prophetess Anne and The Visitation to the right – by this order, from left to right. The lower chapel, besides its rich patterned and colourful walls, also bears a mural painting of the Annunciation (uncovered upon its restoration in 1849), at the left lateral bay.

Entrance of the Lower Chapel (CC BY-SA 4.0, by Zairon)

Interior of the Lower Chapel (CC BY 2.0, by xiquinhosilva)

Statue of Saint-Louis in the Lower Chapel (CC BY 2.0, by Guilhem Vellut)

Decorative Detail from the Lower Chapel (CC BY-SA 2.0, by Randi Hausken)

The Upper Chapel: Perhaps the most amazing feature of the upper chapel it’s the incredibly tall and colourful stained-glass windows. The entrance to the chapel is made by the corkscrew staircased, which also leads to the roof. Even though its effect is truly mesmerizingly ethereal, its design is simple in nature, with a single nave (constituted by four bays) and a seven sided apse. The light flows through all the openness of the space, measuring 10 meters by nearly 33 meters. The chapel is enclosed by stained-glass in its majority, occupying about 600 square meters, as the wall surface is almost non-existent. All lancets have the same side, even though the windows of the nave are higher (16 meters) than the apse’s windows (14 meters). In addition, the chapel’s ribbed vaulting is also decorated by beautiful stonework. Metal is used throughout the chapel in order to secure its striking features. In order for such an open and immense space to be possible in the interior of the chapel, supporting elements must have been implemented on the exterior structure. Overall, the chapel measures around 20 meters.

Entrance of the Upper Chapel (CC BY 2.0, by Shadowgate)

Interior of the Upper Chapel

Interior of the Upper Chapel

Stained-glass windows as an art, was profoundly common from the 10th to the 16th century. They featured brilliant colours and involved various techniques such as flashing. The stained-glass windows of the Sainte-Chapelle are considered a masterpiece upon themselves, and an exquisite example of this artform. Together, the 15 windows are the vastest and most exquisite collection of 13th century stained-glass. Each window is 15 meters in height, possessing a very large scale, and together they totalize over 600 square meters of glass, spanning almost all of the walls in their entirety. The windows have a narrative character and depict Biblical scenes of both the Old and New Testaments and the arrival of the relics to Paris. In total they depict over 1,113 biblical figures, and were all created with the use of just five colours: blue, red, green, purple and yellow. Despite this limited palette, the windows show a wide variety of shading and tones.

Windows and Rose Window from the Upper Chapel (ceiling view) (CC BY 2.0, by Xin Sy)

The iconography of the stained-glass windows is of a schematic nature, but also highly symbolic. According to the specialist Madame François Perrot, there are two narrative cycles corresponding to a specific part of the Chapelle, and they are: the Old Testament cycle and the Prophetic cycle. The cycle of the Old Testament, the stained-glass of the windows of the nave (a place destined for the laity), narrates the life of the Jewish people, as it was told in the bible. King Louis was also included as a successor of the Isralite kings, affirming that the French royalty were also descendents of biblical royalty, and it also depicts the transferral of the relics to the chapel as part of the storyline. Small in scale, each depiction adds to the previous one, and are intended to be read like a books of illustrations from left to right (clockwise), starting with the Book of Genesis on the left (depicting  the creation of Earth and the heavens, Adam and Eve), the Passion of Christ and the Resurrection of Jesus on the forward wall (which aimed to sit above the relics) the depiction the Book of Esther and the Book of Kings on the right wall, and the account of the relics arriving in Paris and the journey of the King as a penitent in the streets to place the relics in the Chapel, on the last window on the right. The prophetic cycle, corresponding to windows of the liturgical choir (a place intended for the king and canons) illustrates the life of Christ, from his childhood to his resurrection (including the scenes of the Passion of Christ), the books of the prophets (Isaiah, Ezekiel, Jeremiah and Daniel), and includes the depictions of St. John the Baptist (the last prophet) and St. John the Evangelist (the witness of the Revelation). Besides these two distinct cycles, the stained-glass works also depict royal related scenes – such as coronations, heraldic motifs and King Louis as a Christ-like figure (wearing the crown of thorns) – and many important battle scenes. These played a part in the decision of King Louis to depart and battle in the Crusades, after the chapel’s consagracion. Even though King Louis was very much involved in every step of the Sainte-Chapelle’s conception, it is suggested that the same team of theologians that created the moralized bibles (1230-1240), were crucial to the development of these narrative sequences.

Baptism (stained-glass detail, from the Sainte-Chapelle of Paris)

David and Saul (stained-glass detail, from the Sainte-Chapelle of Paris)

Later in the 15th Century, a large rose window was added to the collection, estimated to date to 1495. As a culmination of all the scenes and all the other rose windows, it depicts the Apocalypse, or the Final Judgment. The window, as was customary at the time, radiates out from a central oculus, following a highly decorated design, helping establish a tradition in rose windows which began earlier in the Gothic period.

Rose Window (CC BY-SA 4.0, by Zairon)

Detail of the Rose Window Petals

Detail of the Rose Window

 

influences/legacy

The Sainte-Chapelle’s was greatly defined by its precursors of the Rayonnant style. It was  specially defined in similar character and design to the chapels of the Amiens Cathedral (1220–1270). In regards to the two stories, it is believed to have been inspired from the Bishop’s Chapel (c. 1180s) of Noyon Cathedral. It is also believed to have been greatly inspired by the metalwork and gold created by the Mosan goldsmiths (Romanesque art, which emerged in the valley of the River Meuse) of which the Choir of the Basilica of our Lady (c.1100) is a great example, or by the various gold masterpieces created by Nicholas Verdun. The addition of the large rose windows is likely to have been inspired by the rose window of the south transept of Notre-Dame Cathedral (1163-1345), completed in 1255.

West Choir in the Basilica of Our Lady, Maastricht (c.1100) (CC BY-SA 4.0, by Kleon3)

Verdun Altar (c. 1181) in the Klosterneuburg Monastery, Austria Named after Niholas of Verdun (CC BY-SA 3.0, by Hans A. Rosbach)

Shrine of the Three Magi (1180-1225), in Cologne Cathedral, by Nicholas Verdun (CC BY-SA 3.0, by Amoli)

Notre-Dame’s Rose Window (1255) (CC BY-SA 2.0, by Zachi Evenor)

 

 

 

As soon as it was completed, the 15 stained glass windows made Sainte-Chapelle instantly famous, which became known and renowned for its exquisite beauty. During the same time, stained-glass windows were applied in various other cathedrals. Orchestrated and coordinated by the same architect, as it is believed, the Saint-Denis (1144) in Northern Paris also displays large stained-glass windows dating the same period, and establishing resonances with the Sainte-Chapelle ones. Other renowned examples can be found in the stained-glass windows of Chartres Cathedral (1221) and in Le Mans Cathedral (1236-1279) in Normandy – which added similar stained-glass windows in the midst of its construction. Many other Sainte-Chapelle’s were inspired by Louis IX’s original Sainte-Chapelle. In fact, it originated a style of chapels which all possessed similar architectural formats and all housed relics. Usually attached to the palaces, and with close ties to the royal families, they possessed their own clergy and served as expressions of devotion and diplomatic political moves,  just like the original one. Renown examples constructed after the Sainte-Chapelle include: Saint-Germer-de-Fly Abbey (Sainte-Chapelle added in the mid-13th century) in Picardi, Riom’s Sainte-Chapelle (14th century), Vincennes’s Sainte-Chapelle (1379) and Châteaudun’s Sainte-Chapelle (1451). Other foreign examples that adopted a similar style are: Karlštejn Castle (1348) near Prague, Hofburg (13th century) in Vienna, Collegiate Church of the Holy Cross and St Bartholomew in Wrocław.

Rose Window of the Basilica of Saint-Denis (CC BY-SA 3.0, by Amirwiki)

Interior of Chartres Cathedral

Stained-Glass detail from the Sainte-Chapelle in Riom (CC BY-SA 3.0, by Thierry de Villepin)

Rose Window of the Sainte-Chapelle in Vincennes (CC BY-SA 3.0, by Daniel Vorndran)

Nave of the Lower Chapel, Sainte-Chapelle in Châteaudun (CC BY-SA 3.0, by Pliny)

Besides these direct influences of the Chapelle, the Rayonnant Gothic style as a notorious innovation, also had a profound influence on religious architecture across Europe, specially in England, where it quickly spread to. In England, French Rayonnant tracery was incorporated with local English features, creating an British version of the Rayonnant style from the middle of the 13th century onwards. This variant was materialized in the reconstruction of St. Paul’s Cathedral – which was directly based upon the model of Sainte Chapelle -, in the added elements of the Bristol Cathedral (1298–1382), and in the vaulted ceiling of the Chapter House (1220). Other English examples include: the angel choir of Lincoln Cathedral (1256–1280), the retrochoir of Lady Chapel of Wells Cathedral (1329–1345), the tracery of Exeter Cathedral (begun 1258) and the nae widows of York Minster (1338–39). The Rayonnant style gradually spread to the east from Paris and was adapted to local styles accordingly. The nave of Strasbourg Cathedral (1015-1439), which was then in the Holy Roman Empire, is another notable early example. The style also migrated to countries like Italy and Spain in examples such as Siena Cathedral (1215–1264) and Girona Cathedral (begun 1292), respectively.

Bristol Cathedral (CC BY-SA 3.0, by Diliff)

York Window (CC BY-SA 2.0, by Jules & Jenny)

Strasbourg Cathedral (CC BY-SA 3.0, by Diliff)

Italian Renaissance Architecture
By Andrea Palladio (2018)

Italian Renaissance Architecture
By Marco Bussagli (2012)

De Architectura
By Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (2008)

Classical Architecture: A Complete Handbook
By Robert Adam (1990)

Renaissance Thought
By Robert D. Black (2001)

reference images

related works

Title: Amiens Cathedral
Date: 1220–1270

Location: Amiens, France
Image Credit:
CC BY-SA 3.0, by Jean-Pol GRANDMONT

Title: Notre-Dame Cathedral
Date: 1163-1345

Location: Paris, France

Title: Sainte-Chapelle
Date: 1379

Location: Vincennes, France
Image Credit: CC BY-SA 3.0, by Daniel Vorndran

Title: Bristol Cathedral
Date: 1298–1382

Location: Bristol, England

Title: Strasbourg Cathedral
Date: 1015-1439

Location: Strasbourg, France
Image Credit: CC BY-SA 2.0, by Tauralbus